The adult is a brown moth with a 40-50 mm wing span and a
Eggs are laid in clusters of 50-100, on the lower side of
The larvae are covered with long yellowish to black hairs
and are up to 5 cm long.
Pupation takes place in the soil under dry.
Young larvae feed gregariously mostly on the under surface
of the leaves.
Caterpillars feed on leaves and in severe infestation the
whole crop is defoliated.
Drying up of infected leaves is the main symptom.
Pre-monsoon deep ploughing (two/three times) will expose the
hibernating pupae to sunlight and predatory birds.
Removal and destruction of alternate wild hosts which
harbour the hairy caterpillars.
Collect and destroy egg masses and early instars larvae
Conserve the natural bio control population of spiders, long
horned grasshoppers, praying mantid, robar fly, ants,
green lace wing,damsel flies/dragon flies, flower bugs, shield
bugs, lady bird beetles, ground beetle, predatory cricket,
earwing, braconids, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscular
Use of NPV (nuclear polyhedrosis virus) on cloudy days at
500 LE/ha will be effective. Spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis
is also advocated at 1 kg/ha where mulberry is not grown.
Conserve the barconids parasites.
Apply safe chemical insecticides at recommended doses only
if the insect population crosses the ETL.
Dust Lindan 1.3% or Fanvalerate 0.4% 15.20 kg/ha, the early
stage is easy to control.
Form a deep furrow trench around the field and dust with two
per cent methyl parathion to prevent the mass migration of hairy
Spraying of quinalphos 25 EC (2 ml/lit), or chlorpyriphos 20
EC (2.5 ml/lit) or endosulfan 35 EC (2.0 ml/lit) recommended
when the caterpillars are younger.
Adults are orange bodied with smoky transparent wings.
Larva is greenish black with wrinkled body and eight pairs
of pro-legs. On slightest touch the larva falls to round and
The pest is active during seedling stage of the crop i.e.
October - November.
Initially the larva nibbles leaves, later it feeds from the
margins towards the midrib.
The grubs cause numerous shot holes andeven riddled the
entire leaves by voracious feeding.
They devour the epidermis of the shoot, resulting in drying
up of seedlings and failure to bear seeds in older plants.
The yield losses up to 5 to 18 %. In severe case at the
seedling stage, the crop have to be resown.
Summer ploughing to destroy the pupa.
Early sowing should be done.
Maintain clean cultivation.
Apply irrigation in seedling stage is very crucial for
sawfly management because most of the larvae die due to drowning
Severe cold reduce pest growth.
Collection and destruction of grubs of saw fly in morning
Conserve Perilissus cingulator (parasites the grubs), and
the bacterium Serratia marcescens Bizio infect the larvae of
Use of bitter gourd seed oil emulsion as on anti-feedent.
Spray the crop with 1000 ml/ha malathion 50 EC OR
625 ml/ha Endosulphan 35 EC
Quinolphos 25 EC 625ml/ha. All this should be applied in about
600 to 700 litres of water per ha.
Endosulfan 4% dust OR methyl parathion 2% @25 kg/ha.
Methyl preparation or carbaryl dust or spray formulations
Aphids are small, soft-bodied, pearl-shaped insects that
have a pair of cornicles (wax-secreting tubes) projecting out
from the fifth
or sixth abdominal segment.
There are four nymphal stages (instars).
Wingless, female, aphids are yellowish green, gray green or
olive green with a white waxy bloom covering the body.
The waxy coating is more dense under humid conditions.
The winged, female, adult aphids have a dusky green abdomen
with dark lateral stripes separating the body segments and dusky
Male aphids are olive-green to brown in color.
The aphid attacks generally during 2nd and 3rd week of
December and continues till March.
The most favourable temperature is in between 8 to 24o
Rainy and humid weather help in accelerating the growth of
Set up yellow stick trap to monitor aphid population.
It is a serious pest of mustard.
Plants are infested at all the stages.
Both nymph and adults suck the sap from leaves, buds and
Curling may occur for infested leaves and at advanced stage
plants may wither and die.
Plants remain stunted and sooty molds grow on the honey dew
excreted by the insects.
The infected filed looks sickly and blighted in appearance.
Use tolerant varieties like JM-1 and RK-9501.
The crop sown before 20th October escape the damage.
70 to 80 % humidity is favourable for faster multiplication
Destroy the affected parts along with aphid population in
the initial stage.
Ladybird beetles viz., Cocciniella septempunctata,
Menochilus sexmaculata, Hippodamia variegata and cheilomones
vicina are most effcient pradators of the mustard aphid. Adult
beetle may feed an average of 10 to 15 adults/day.
Several species of syrphid fly i.e., Sphaerophoria spp.,
Eristallis spp., Metasyrphis spp., Xanthogramma spp and Syrphus
spp. are predating on aphids.
The braconid parasitoid, Diaretiella rapae a very active bio
control agent cause the mummification of aphids.
The lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea predates on the mustard
Predatory bird Motacilla cospica is actively feeding over
aphids in February-March.
A number of entomogenous fungi, Cephalosporium spp.,
Entomophthora and Verticillium lecanii infect aphids.
Spraying should be done only insect population is more than
Spraying should be done in evening.
Spray the crop with one of the following in the flowering
stage; Oxydemeton methyl, Dimethoate@ 625 - 1000 ml per ha.